65th (2nd Yorkshire North Riding) Regiment of Foot
Here is a list of my favorites - not exhaustive, but is sure to grow as I do more surfing.
[ Re-enactment | Research | Suppliers | Photography | Fun stuff | References | Museums ]
Australasian Register of Living History Organisations - for people in our neck of the woods
British Muzzleloaders - Fantastic resource from my friend Rob about all things British soldiers' arms and equipment from Napoleonic to WWII.
Brockville Infantry Company, 1862 - a Canadian militia unit of our period.
19th (1st Yorks. North Riding) Regiment of Foot, a Crimean War group based in the UK. Uniformed as the 65th would have appeared before 1858, apart from different facings, etc.
40th (2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot, an Australian re-enactment wearing mid 1850s uniform . The regiment served in New Zealand 1860 - 1866, where it wore the same uniform as our impression, but with regimental distinctions.
The Victorian Association. UK based - "two of the top UK Victorian re-enactment societies" - representing regiments from the Crimean to the Anglo Boer wars.
Victorian Military Society. UK based "international society whose principal aim is to encourage and foster the study of military aspects of the Victorian era."
Halifax Citadel Regimental Association - Home of the 78th Highland Regiment and 3rd Brigade, Royal Artillery - re-enactors of circa 1869 armed with Snider rifles, based at the Halifax Citadel, Nova Scotia.
Royal Engineers "In Her Britannic Majesty's Colonies of Vancouver's Island and British Columbia" - Re-enactment group covering Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery and Royal Marine Light Infantry during the period of the joint occupation of San Juan Island (now in Washington State) by Britain and the US in the early 1860s.
American Civil War
Camp Chase Gazette - always a good read.
Abimelech Hainsworth, Spring Valley Mills, Stanningley, Pudsey, West Yorkshire LS28 6DW, UK, ph 053 256 7407, fax 053 255 8187 - "Makers of fine cloth since the battle of Waterloo"
C & D Jarnigan Co., P. O. Box 1860, Corinth MS 38834, ph 601-287-4977
- ACW stuff, including British Army equipment sold to the Confederates - Enfield bayonet scabbards, cap pouch, expense pouch, etc.
Access Heritage Inc. - lots of nice stuff, not much directly of use to us, but we live in hope.
Burns Battle Bonnets Ask for the plain blue 1860s Kilmarnock as worn by lesser mortals in Crimea/New Zealand.
Gun Works, P.O.Box 130,
Union City, TN 3826, 800-238-6785
- for many 1860s items common to the British and Civil War Armies.
Fall Creek Suttlery, P. O. Box 92, Whitestown, IN 46075, ph 317-769-5355 - more good ACW stuff, including authentic cork muzzle stoppers.
Hayes & Associates, P. O. Box 188, Carterton, New Zealand, ph 6-379 6692 - for Enfield rifles in New Zealand.
Lodgewood Mfg, in the US - for original and correct copies of Enfield rifle parts.
Paper Cartridges, in US - for Enfield Cartridges for .577 or .58-caliber rifle-muskets. Now available with .568 and .550 bullets.
Messines Bookshop - Military History 76 Fox St, Featherston. New, second hand and rare military books.
Missouri Boot & Shoe Company - They will make a special order (non-catalog item) of the correct British Army boots, even with the right pattern of hobnails.
N.J. Sekela, Historic Clothier, P.O.Box 28, Butler, New Jersey 07405, ph 973-283-0800 - Authentic ACW uniforms and gear.
Quartermaster Stores, UK based supplier of leather accoutrements.
Regimental Quartermaster, US based supplier of Victorian British kit.
Now supplier of leather accoutrements from Graham Humphrey.
Naval & Military Press, on-line military bookshop with a huge selection, including Regimental histories, Army Lists (of British Officers) and drill books. Includes Hart's Army Lists for 1840 and 1860, and "Regulations for the Dress of General Staff and Regimental Officers of the Army, 1857"
Sally Pointer Can supply the Kilmarnock, as well as the earlier forage cap as worn by the troops in the 1845-46 wars here.
The Sutlers Stores - 7-11 Poole Road & 39-41 West Hill Road, The Triangle, Bournemouth, BH2 5PW, UK, ph +44-1202-268 176, or 0870-757-2363 (UK only) - mainly American Civil War, but large catalogue includes multi period equipment. Military tailor can produce any clothing to order.
Victorian Military Accoutrements - 95 Te Ngawai Road, Pleasant Point 7903, New Zealand - Locally made British leather accoutrements, including cartridge, cap and expense pouches.
The Wyedean Weaving Company Ltd, Bridgehouse Mill, Haworth, West Yorkshire BD22 8PA, UK, ph 1535 643077, fax 1535 646671 - manufacturers of braid and uniform accoutrements. If it's woven, they can make it.
See also Equipment List and Suppliers for list of where we get each item.
All still photographs (unless otherwise credited) on our web © Peter Harrison Photography, P. O. Box 68 929, Auckland, New Zealand
All videos on our web © John Welch, Real to Reel Picture Co. (e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org)
ALF's Imperial Army - Pacifist warfare "re-enactment" of late 19th British Empire (my cultural roots before I got "serious")
The Wizard of New Zealand - Living Work of Art and spiritual leader of ALF's Imperial Army
Private Collections, Historians
Michael Murrie-Jones, Brisbane [ email@example.com ]. Michael is our Australian associate (but he is a Kiwi) - he has a large collection of uniforms, equipment, etc from British regiments that served in NZ and Oz and has helped us enormously with his research and advice.
Tim Ryan, Wellington - collector, historian, model maker and author. He has helped us become what we are today. His original Colonial New Zealand Wars book inspired me when I bought it way back in 1986.
New Zealand Permanent Force Old Comrades' Association - History, recollections and opinions from New Zealand's professional gunners.
Uniforms & Equipment
Arms & Equipment of the British Army 1866, Greenhill Books, London, 1986
The British Army on Campaign 1816 - 1902 (2), The Crimean War, 1854-56, Osprey Men-at-Arms 197, Osprey Publishing, London
The British Army on Campaign 1816 - 1902 (3), 1856 - 1881, Osprey Men-at-Arms 198, Osprey Publishing, London, 1988.
British Infantry Equipments 1808 - 1908, Osprey Men-at-Arms 107, Osprey Publishing, London, 1980.
British Infantry Equipments 1808 - 1908, Osprey Men-at-Arms 107, 2nd Edition, Osprey Publishing, London, 1999.- Almost a complete rewrite - new text and drawings - great to have both editions.
British Infantry Uniforms since 1660, Michael Barthorp, Blandford Press, Poole, 1982.
British Infantry Weapons and Equipment 1800 - 1996, Regiment magazine, Issue 17, 1996, Nexus
"The Cut of the Cloth" articles, D. S. V. & B. K. Fosten, Military Modelling magazine, October 1982 (1856 tunic), November 1983 (1855 shako)
The Indian Mutiny, Osprey Men-at-Arms 67, Osprey Publishing, London
List of Changes in British War Material in relation to edged weapons,
firearms and associated ammunition and accoutrements, Vol 1, 1860 - 1886. I
D Skennerton, 1979.
I've summarised some of this material in a page - list of changes to British Army weapons, uniforms and equipment relevant to an infantry unit during the period we portray.
Militaria Directory and Sourcebook 1998, Windrow & Greene, London, 1997. - "The essential reference book for all military hobbies"Regulations for the Dress of General Staff and Regimental Officers of the Army, 1857 - Naval & Military Press reprint, 2006
Rifle Ammunition "being notes on the manufactures connected therewith as conducted in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich", Arthur B. Hawes, Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, 2004. - This is a retypeset version of the extremely rare, 1859 edition, covering all aspects of the manufacture of "Enfield" rifle ammunition at the Royal Laboratory in Woolwich, England. Includes bullets, cartridges, packaging, crating, percussion caps, and engravings of the machinery.
Soldiers' Accoutrements of the British Army 1750-1900, Pierre Turner, Crowood, 2007 - "Eighty-four full-color plates depict a wide range of the accoutrements and equipment of the ordinary soldier serving in the cavalry, infantry and artillery of the British Army between 1750 and 1900. Accoutrements include everything that is worn by a soldier that is neither his main uniform nor a weapon. This book features all the various types of accoutrements including: sword and bayonet belts, waist belts, pouches, water bottles, haversacks, mess tins, knapsacks, sabretaches, sword knots, musket and rifle slings, intrenching tools and the valise equipments of 1870, 1882 and 1888."
The Thin Red Line, D. S. V. & B. K. Fosten, Windrow & Greene, London, 1989. - Redcoat uniforms of the British Army between 1751 & 1914.
Weapons and Equipment of the Victorian Soldier, Donald Featherston, Arms & Armour Press, 1978
Wellington's Army Reproduced in Colour Photographs, Neil Leonard, Europa Militaria Special No. 5, Windrow & Greene, London, 1994
Thanks to Pierre Turner for sending us beautiful line drawings of original equipment.
A Sketch of the New Zealand War, Morgan S Grace, Horace Marshall & Son, London, 1899 - account, much of it eye witness by author) by an assistant surgeon who arrived in late 1860, up till end of war.
Brave British Soldiers and the Victoria Cross, London, Ward Lock & Co, circa 1866. Accounts of British Victoria Cross recipients in New Zealand.
Bush Fighting, Maj. Gen. Sir James Alexander, Sampson Low, London, 1873 (reprint Capper Press, 1973) - Accounts of the invasion of the Waikato, etc.
The Colonial New Zealand Wars, Tim Ryan and Bill Parham, Grantham House, New Zealand, 1986, 2nd Edition 2002, (ISBN 1-86934-082-5) - lots of photographs and illustrations.
OUT NOW! the exciting second edition
of said book - new research included + COLOUR PHOTOS
of the 65TH !)
Click the cover to see sample colour pages.
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography - The Ministry for Culture and Heritage's online version of the five-volume Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Contains all 3049 biographies, including all the prominent figures of the New Zealand Wars period. Marred somewhat by James Belich's biography of Gen. Duncan Cameron, which, as in his books, provides a revisionist interpretation of many of his achievements.
Discharged in New Zealand : soldiers of the Imperial Foot Regiments who took their discharge in New Zealand 1840-1870 / Hugh & Lyn Hughes. New Zealand Society of Genealogists, 1988. - Lists the details of the soldiers - place of enlistment, previous occupation, ship they came to New Zealand on, etc.
Forest Rangers, Richard Stowers, Print House, Hamilton, New Zealand, 1996 - in-depth history of the unit, including biographies of nearly every man who served in it.
Frontier: The Battle for the North Island of New Zealand, 1860 - 1872. - Peter Maxwell, 2000 - The author sets out to sort out the politically correct (as told by both early NZ historians and late 20th century revisionists) from what really happened, with emphasis on the fact that by the end it was as much a civil war amongst Maori as it was evil white-man land grabbing.... Contains a lot of solid material that directly discredits Belich. It is a bit patchy in the coverage of the war conducted by the British, and contains some glaring technical errors (30" bayonets and photo of Remington Zouave captioned as an Enfield??), but has very in-depth coverage of the Colonial and Maori militias' war against Titokowaru and Te Kooti.
Incidents of the Maori War, Maj. Gen. Sir James Alexander, Richard Bentley, London, 1863 (reprint Capper Press, 1973) - Accounts of fighting 1860-61.
Landscapes of Conflict "A field guide to the New Zealand wars", Nigel Prickett, Random House, New Zealand, 2002 - A guide to the battle sites of the New Zealand wars, written by the Curator of Archeology at Auckland War Memorial Museum, with "then and now" photos and illustrations, including directions on finding the sites.
Marching to the Drums: From the Kabul Massacre to the Seige of Mafikeng. Ian Knight (ed.), Stackpole Books, 1999 - Includes a first-hand account by a private of the 65th in New Zealand 1863-65, covering Cameron Town, Rangiriri, and Gate Pa.
The Maori European Wars, Paul Hamlyn, Wellington.
The Maori Wars, the British Army in New Zealand 1840 - 1872, Tom Gibson, 1974.
Two Peoples, One Land - The New Zealand Wars, Matthew Wright, Reed Publishing, 2006 - very well researched and fully referenced history of the wars. Keeps correcting some of the assumptions made by "some revisionist historians" (gee, wonder who). Well worth reading. But still, as usual, shows very little understanding of the capabilities, or even types, of weapons used. Also perpetuates a lot of the historic spelling mistakes of the names of officers - hasn't read the Army Lists :-)
Memoirs of the 65th Regiment, 1st Battalion the York & Lancaster Regt, 1756 to 1913, ed. Lt.-Col E C Broughton, London, William Clowes & Sons, 1914.
Memorials of Sergt W. M. Marjouram R. A., ed. Segt. W. White, London, 1862 - Diary of a Royal Artillery RSM who served in the Taranaki War of 1860-1.
Narrative of the Late War in New Zealand. Lt.-Col Robert Carey, London, Richard Bentley, 1863.
Reprinted and renamed The 2nd Maori War: 1860-1861, Robert Carey, Leonaur, 2007 - which cheekily put an unauthorised photo of me on the cover.
New Zealand Electronic Text Centre - New Zealand Wars (1845–1872) Collection - great new online resource of texts on the wars, including both volumes of James Cowan's histories.
The New Zealand Wars and the Pioneering Period, Vol. 1, 1845 - 64, James Cowan, 1923 (1983 reprint) - the classic history of the wars, including eye witness accounts. Now available online at the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre.
The New Zealand Wars, and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict, James Belich, Penguin Press, 1986. - The definitive revisionist history of the wars. Accepted as gospel by those who know no better. Written by an academic with almost no knowledge of military tactics, weapon capabilities, who does not seem to have even been to many of the battle sites. Text and maps, but no photographs.
The O'Hara Legacy, Raymond Gallagher, 1996 - memoirs of a soldier-settler of the 58th Regiment.
The Rambling Soldier, ed. Roy Palmer, Penguin, 1977 - Life in the lower ranks, 1750-1900, through soldiers' writings and songs.
The Records of the New Zealand Historic Places Trust, No. 2, April 1978 - articles on "Archaeological Sites of the New Zealand Wars in the Omata District, Taranaki" by Nigel Prickett, covering the Omata Stockade, Waireka Camp, St Patrick's Redoubt/Poutoko, Fort Robert, and Allen's Hill Blockhouse, and "Rangiriri" by Patricia Adams.
To Face the Daring Maoris, Soldiers' impressions of the First Maori War 1845 -47, Michael Barthorp, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1979.
Sacred Soil, Images and Stories of the New Zealand Wars, Neil Finlay, Random House, New Zealand, 1998 - Easy to read history with "Then and Now" photos of battle sites and other locations.
The Story of Gate Pa, April 29th, 1864, Capt. Gilbert Mair (ed. W.H Gifford), Bay of Plenty Times, Tauranga, 1937 (reprint 1964) - first hand account of the Gate Pa and Te Ranga, with supplementary list of casualties, official reports, correspondences etc.
The York and Lancaster Regiment, Vol 1. Col. H. C. Wylly, 1930
The Waikato War, John Featon, 1879.
"Walking the... (Hone Heke's/Wellington/Taranaki/Waikato) Wars" articles in New Zealand Defence Quarterly, Chris Pugsley, No.1 onwards.
Well Done the 68th, The Durhams in the Crimea and New Zealand, 1854 - 1866. John Bilcliffe, Picton Publishing, 1995
The White Ensign in New Zealand, J. O'C Ross, Wellington, AH & AW Reed, 1967 - Includes Royal Navy actions on land in the wars.
Drill & Tactics
The Artillerist's Manual and British Soldier's Companion, 1862, Major F. A. Griffiths, R. A. (Eilbron Classics reprint, 2005), - a compilation of parts of Field Exercises and Evolutions of Infantry', 'Artillery Exercises', 'Field Artillery Exercises', 'Instructions and Observations on Armstrong Guns, Carriages, &c.' - officially sanctioned for use by Officers and NCOs.
Note: Entire 1856 Edition of this book online at - http://www.openlibrary.org/details/artilleristsmanu00grifuoft
Arms & Equipment of the British Army 1866, Greenhill Books, London, 1986.
Regulations for the Instruction, Formations and Movements of the Cavalry, 1862, H M Stationery Office, London. - original edition of the manual used by the British Army of the period. 237 pp. of everything the cavalry needs to know, from equitation, drilling a single recruit, to deploying a regiment.
Field Exercises & Evolutions of Infantry, 1861 (Field Exercise 1862, Pocket edition), 1862, H M Stationery Office, London. - original edition of the manual used by the British Army of the period. 537 pp. of everything the infantry needs to know, from drilling a single recruit to deploying a brigade.
Manual of Artillery Exercises 1860, 1860, John W Parker and Son, West Strand. - original edition of the manual used by the Royal Artillery of the period. 303 pp. of everything the artillery needs to know, for every piece of ordnance used in New Zealand - smooth-bore guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets, including "brand new” Armstrong’s Gun. Also carbine exercises.
Drill and Rifle Instruction for the Corps of Rifle Volunteers, second edition, 1859, HM Stationery Office, London.
Drill and Rifle Instruction for the Corps of Rifle Volunteers, seventh edition, 1860, HM Stationery Office, London.Hand-book for Hythe [i.e. for the School of musketry at Hythe]; Hans Busk 1860, Routledge, Warne and Routledge, London. [Cornell Publications reprint 2007]. - Information ordinarily imparted during one of the regular courses at the British Army school of Musketry at Hythe.
Hardee's Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, New York, 1862, Reprint by C & D Jarnigan Co.
Rifle Volunteers: How to Organize and Drill them, Hans Busk, 1860, Routledge, Warne and Routledge, London.
Sinnott's Military Catechism, Ninth Edition,
Capt. John Sinnott, W. Clowes & Sons, London
"Designed for the use of non-commissioned officers and others of the infantry, and adapted to the revised system of the Field Exercises and Evolutions of the Army" - an original book, undated but post-1856, this copy is named "J Ward, 57th Regiment, Wanganui, New Zealand"
The Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Horse Guards, 1st July 1844 (3rd Ed.), London, Parker Furnival, and Parker.
Rules and Regulations for the Manual and Platoon Exercises, Formations, Field-Exercise, and movements of his majesty's Forces, 1816 - on-line copy of this manual on the web-site of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment, Napoleonic Association.
Text Book on Fortification etc for the use of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Col. G Philips, RE, London, 1884. - Military engineering for infantry officers, how to build stockades, pontoon bridges, artillery emplacements, defend houses, dig saps, etc.
Text Book on Fortification & Military Engineering Part II, for the use at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 1886. - Military engineering for artillery officers, similar to above, with more emphasis on large scale fortification, sieges, etc.
Reference Books in the Auckland War Memorial Museum
Imperial Foot Regiments in New Zealand and Support Units, 1840 – 1870. A4 sized typed booklet.
Military Miscellany, Shirley Kendall – accounts of actions of soldiers in NZ, including murder of Lieut. Alexander of the 65th, and Drummer Allen's death in Lower Hutt.Journals of the Deputy Quartermaster General in New Zealand, 24 Dec 1861 – 7 Dec 1864. D. J. Gamble. – day by day account of activities, supplies – Great South Road, battles. Also separately bound edition of just the maps.
Some Reminiscences of the Die Hards, Edwin Bezar, Dunedin, 1882 - Includes action involving the 57th Regt. in New Zealand.
Imperial Soldiers discharged in New Zealand. Names of soldiers discharged here, including 1100 members of the 65th.
Well Done the 68th, The Durhams in the Crimea and New Zealand, 1854 - 1866. John Bilcliffe, Picton Publishing, 1995
The O'Hara Legacy, Raymond Gallagher, 1996 - memoirs of a soldier-settler of the 58th Regiment
Memoirs of the 65th (bound photocopy)
Reference Books in the National Library and Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington
Hart's Army List - 1846, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1864, 1865, 1866
GB Army List - 1859-60, 1860-61, 1862-63
Military law, honour, and justice, in the British Army, in the years 1860-63: as evidenced in the proceedings of a general court-martial in New Zealand, and from the various other papers and official documents connected therewith" F. R. Stack, London, 1864 - The book includes a full transcript of his court martial for conduct unbecoming... for refusing, in 1860, to relinquish his post as Major of Brigade and take up his company post as a Captain of the 65th Regt. in Wanganui.
Roll of the Officers of the York and Lancaster Regiment : containing a complete record of their services including dates of commissions, &c. George Alfred Raikes, Richard Bentley & Son, London, 1885. - Service of every officer in the 65th Regiment (after 1881, the 1st Battalion York & Lancaster Regiment).
The [Official] Army List - 1857, 1860, 1861
Reciprocal link with Woodworkers Workshop, who have linked to the plans for the small arms ammunition box on this site.
Over the hills and Far away - the Music of Sharpe - John Tams, Napoleonic war British music from the Sharpe TV movie series. Unfortunately modern instruments and arrangement and some 'customising' of lyrics makes suspect the authenticity of the songs.
The Rambling Soldier, Roy Harris. British army "life in the lower ranks 1750-1900 through soldiers' songs".
Fort Henry Guard, Music of the fifes and drums. Music up till 1867. Available from Fort Henry.
MuseumsArmy Museum, P. O. Box 45, Waiouru, New Zealand
Auckland War Memorial Museum, The Domain, Auckland,
New Zealand, ph 9-309 0443
- "Scars on the Heart" exhibit, military history involving New Zealanders from pre-european to present. Great online collection of photos of artifacts. See also list of books.
Fort Henry Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Manned by 'Fort Henry Guard' wearing 1867 uniforms.
Halifax Citadel A fort in Halifax, Nova Scotia, manned by the 78th Highland Regiment and 3rd Brigade, Royal Artillery re-enactment units.
Howick Historical Village, Bell's Road, Pakuranga, Auckland, New Zealand, ph 9-576 9506.
- Fencible settlement set in 1850.
National Archives of the United Kingdom - UK government records, including military service records of armed forces from the mid eighteenth century.
National Army Museum, Royal Hospital Road, Chelsea, London, SW3 4HT, UK, ph 171-730 0717, fax 171-823 6573 - history of the British Army.
National Library of New Zealand - online viewing of all the paintings and photos in the Alexander Turnbull Library.
Queen’s Redoubt Trust - The main objectives of the Queen's Redoubt Trust are:
Rangiriri Battle Site Heritage Centre, Rangiriri,
New Zealand, ph 7-826 3663, fax 7-826 3744.
- private museum with audio-visual of battle.
St Mary's Pro Cathedral, New Plymouth
Historic church. Includes hatchments showing the insignia of [NZ] Government and Imperial troops that served in Taranaki. Also includes the Colours of the Taranaki Militia. Church yard includes many graves of soldiers and settlers who died in the wars.
Tauranga Historic Village/Museum, 17th Avenue West, Tauranga, New Zealand, ph 7-578 1302
- may or may not still include a 6 pdr Armstrong Gun (in poor condition) and "68th Durham Light Infantry Regimental Headquarters" exhibit.
Tawhiti Museum, Nigel and Teresa Ogle, 47 Ohangai
Road, Hawera, ph 6-278 6837
Impressive private museum showing the history of South Taranaki. Includes a large number of life sized figures (soldiers in their own blockhouse) and models.
Te Awamutu District Museum, P. O. Box 526, 171
Roche St, Te Awamutu, New Zealand, ph 7-871 4326
- Used to include a perfectly preserved 12 pdr Armstrong Gun! (last used in the 1940 movie "Rewi's Last Stand" about the battle of Orakau). This has now been moved to Waiouru for restoration.
The [New Zealand] Police Museum, situated at the
Royal New Zealand Police College, Papakowhai, Porirua, ph 4-237 0139
- has a good selection of material relating to the New Zealand Wars, in particular dealing with the Armed Constabulary and the various other soldier\police forces in our history. Included are uniforms, weapons, replica cannon and mortar, a genuine New Zealand Cross, and so on.
York & Lancaster Regimental Museum - Clifton Park Museum, Clifton Lane, Rotherham, South Yorkshire, S65 2AA, UK,
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Updated:19 February 2021